To fulfil its objectives and meet the evolving needs of each air sport and area of activity, the FAI has constantly adjusted its organisational structure. Today, the FAI comprises the following elements:
- The FAI General Conference, the supreme policy-making body, defines the aims of FAI, determines its Statutes and By-Laws, and elects the President and the Executive Board. The General Conference convenes once a year.
- The FAI Executive Board is the principal executive body of FAI, responsible for implementing the policies and decisions made by the General Conference.
- The Air Sport Commissions control the activities of the different disciplines governed by FAI : Aerobatics, Aeromodelling, Amateur-built aircraft, Astronautical Records, Ballooning, General Aviation, Gliding, Hang Gliding and Paragliding, Microlights and Paramotor, Parachuting and Rotorcraft.
- The Technical Commissions control non-sporting activities such as Aviation medicine and Environmental matters.
The member nations of FAI are represented by their "National Air Sport Controls" (NACs). At the General Conference, voting powers are held by FAI Active Members and by the Air Sport Commissions.
The FAI Regional Vice Presidents are appointed by the FAI Executive Board to increase the management resources of FAI and provide the Executive Board with a tool for effective regional presence and a mechanism to promote air sports in a particular region.
The FAI Vice Presidents consist of the Vice Presidents representing Active Members and the Presidents of the Air Sport Commissions.
The FAI Office is managed by the Secretary General, who is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the federation. In 1998, after 93 years in Paris, the FAI moved its headquarters and Secretariat to Lausanne, the Olympic Capital.